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دروس تعلم اللغة الإنجليزية من الصفر (المستوى 12)

Level 12 


Direct and Indirect Speech

سندرسه في الثلاث حالات :  1) Statements  2) Questions  3) Commands
وببساطة نقول ان التحويل من الdirect  لل indirect يكون حسب الجدول الآتي :

Direct [Meena]
Present (simple, continuous)
Past (simple, continuous)
Will (H.K.)
Past simple or present perfect
Past perfect
Would + infinitive(المصدر)
Would have + past participle
Fact (حقيقة أو واقع)
Stays the same (تبقى كما هي)
وبعض الكلمات يتم تغييرها أيضا من الdirect  لل indirect كالآتي :
+   This – that / these – those / here – there / now – then ( at that time ) / come – go, came-went, go – go,  went-went / ago – before / today – that day / tomorrow – the next day, the day after , the following day / yesterday – the day before, the previous day / may – might . [Meena]
وبالنسبة للكلمات الآتية تظل كما هي :
Must , might , could , would , should , ought

والأمثلة التالية توضح هذه القواعد (الأمثلة التالية مرتبة حسب ترتيب القواعد في الجدول السابق) :
 1) Statements (said to -- / told -- that)
1) Mark said to me, "I am learning French"    - direct  
He told me that he was learning French         - indirect (reported)
2) He said to Mary, "I will come tomorrow"
He told Mary that he would go the next day .
3) He said to me, "I finished my work"
He told me that he had finished his work .
4) He said, "If I had the money , I would buy a house" .
He said that if he had had the money he would have bought a house .
5) When what is said is a fact, it remains the same. 
He said, "The triangle has 3 sides" (H.K.)
He said that the triangle has 3 sides .

 2) Questions (said to -- / asked – if, asked --, wanted to know  )
---  Roushdy said, "What time do the banks close?"
He wanted to know what time the banks closed.
---  John said to me, "Are you playing now?"
He asked me if I was (were) playing at that time.
---  The policeman said to us, "Where are you going?"
He asked us where we were going
---  "Did you speak French?" He said to me.
He asked me if I had spoken French.
3) Commands (said to -- / ordered -- to , requested --to , asked -- to)
---  He said to me, "Go away"
He ordered me to go away [Meena]  
---  He said to him, "Play the piano, please"
He requested him to play the piano.
---  He said to them, "Don’t shut the door"
He asked them not to shut the door. 

 All the previous examples are when what was said , was in the past (said to), but if the act is in the present (say) or in the future (will say) , the sentence does not change .
Ex:  1) He says , "This work is too difficult"
He says that this work is too difficult. (H.K.)
2) He will say, "This work is too difficult"
He will say that this work is too difficult.

H.W. rewrite the following sentences in the indirect form: [Meena]
1) They said "We are students"  / They __________________________
2) He said "I'll be playing football tomorrow" _____________________
3) She said "I've just finished" _________________________________
4) we say "she is beautiful" ___________________________________
5) you will say "He is smart" __________________________________
6) They said to me "Are you the English teacher?" __________________
7) I said to him "Go away" ____________________________________

N.B .:
1) It is always better to use the direct speech, than the indirect speech.
2) It's not always necessary to change the verb when we change the direct into the indirect speech (the reported speech) especially if we are reporting (saying) something and we feel that it is still true or still happening : (H.K.)
Ex: Ahmed said "I want to go to Egypt"
Ahmed said (that) he wants (or wanted) to go to Egypt.
Zaki said "I woke up feeling ill and so I stayed in bed"
Zaki said (that) he woke (or had woken) up feeling ill and so he stayed (or had stayed) in bed.

كلمات متشابهة وتوضيح الفروق بينها في جمل :
H.W.     (ضروري محاولة وضع كل منهم في جملة أخرى)
Above / over : who live in the flat above you? / the lamp is over the desk
Near / beside / next to : our house is near the sea / we sit beside each others / our house is next to the bank. [Meena]
Below / under (underneath) : the temperature is below freezing point / put it under the table (H.K.) [Meena]
In front of / opposite / before : behave in a better way before the children / our house is opposite the bank / put matters before God in prayers
Too / enough (too comes before the adjective but enough comes after it) :
Magdy is too young to go to school
Magdy can't go to school this year because he is not old enough.
May / might :   might is the past of may , and sometimes it is used when there is less possibility , and also for politeness .
Ex : Where is your brother today? he may be at work.
What is he doing now? He might be watching TV.
Should (ought to) / must : [Meena]
You should (ought to) do it    المفروض (يستحسن) تعملها
You must do it  لازم تعملها                                    
Deed   /  work  /  job  /  occupation  /
career (مهنة الحياة العملية للانسان) /profession (مهنة الانسان التي درسهاأو تدرب عليها)
Ex : repent of your evil deeds /  he wants to finish his work now / he wants to get a good fulltime job /  what is your occupation?  I'm a doctor / he started his career 3 years ago / teaching is a profession.
Leave / stop / forsake (leave forever) / quit (stop and leave) :
Ex : she left her book on the desk /  you must stop this loud noise /  they all forsook him after he had become poor /  he quit smoking
Speak / talk :
Ex : do you speak English / speak good things / it is I who speak /
I'll not talk much with you because I have something to do / this is he whom you need to talk to .
Like / as : (like is followed by a noun or a pronoun / as is followed by  subject + verb)
Ex : It is like the other one / like me (you, him, her, it, us, them) / like this (that, these, those) / like someone (or something)
Write it as it is / just as I told you / stay as you are / as usual / as you know.
NB. Sometimes we also put a noun after as : 1) when we talk about someone's job,  or   2) how we use something 
Ex : 1) He worked as a bus driver.  2) This hotel was used as a hospital.
"A few" , "many" and "a lot of"   are used with countable plural nouns ,
ex: she bought a few pens
"A little" , "much" and "a lot of"   are used with uncountable nouns
ex : please , I need a little rest.
Things to know
in case   علشان لو  /   in case of  في حالة
After "in case" comes  "subject + verb" , but after "in case of" comes  "noun"
---  He wears two watches in case one of them stops.
We bought more food in case they came.
We rang the bell again in case they hadn't heard the first time.
---  In case of emergency , telephone this number.
الفرق بين while  وبين during
After while comes  "subject + verb" , but after during comes  "noun"
Ex: He ate while he was watching TV.
He ate during the film [Meena]
استخدامات بعض الكلمات :
استخدامات كلمة "need"
I need to rest.  /  I needed to rest  /  the house needs cleaning
I don't need to rest  /  I didn't need to rest  /  the house doesn't need cleaning [Meena]
I needn't rest  /  I needn't have rested (it wasn't necessary but I rested) / the house needn't cleaning.
استخدامات كلمة "mind"  :
Keep (bear, have) in mind to do it tomorrow
Keep (set) your mind on your work.
Turn (put) your mind to it.
She took her mind off her sorrow
Have you made up your mind yet? No, I'm still in two minds about it
He is out of his mind (he's mad)
I'm sorry , I broke the bottle .   Never (don't) mind, we'll get another one.

At the airport  :  I'd like to check in for flight number 758 that is going to London / ok., may I have your ticket and passport? /  sure , here you are / thanks , the boarding time is ten fifteen , and here is your boarding pass / thank you .
 The customs  :  Which is your luggage ? / this is my luggage , two suitcases and a handbag / have you anything to declare ? / yes I have a mobile phone and some presents .
Ordering goods from a supermarket :  Yes, please , I'd like some goods to be sent to my home / sure sir , can I take your home address / yea, I live in 33 Rameses St. , second floor appartment # 4 / good , and what would you like? / I need a bottle of milk , three kilos of rice , one coffee creamer medium size and a bag of sugar .
Tourism :  Where are you from ? / I'm from Cairo, Egypt / oh, that's great, I'd love to visit Egypt sometime / you're very welcome, and you'll find good hospitality from all Egyptians there
At the railway station  :  Can I help you? / yes please, I'd like a ticket to Aswan / what day and time ? / next Monday at 7:00 am. (in the morning) / first or second class? / first class / ok. here you are / thank you / you're very welcome. (H.K.)
At the doctor's clinic :  Doctor , my eyes hurt me much / how long have you had this? / for about a week now / don't worry , let me see / they get red especially when I use the computer / I'll give you eye drops , you should use it two times a day and everything will be ok. / Thank you.
Comprehension : How to spend leisure time :

Leisure time can be useful or harmful. Among the useful things that suits leisure time , to those who can read and like reading , is to read. It is important to choose such a reading that is useful for building your personality intellectually, spiritually and socially … .
Another method is listening, listen to your father and mother, to friends, to cassette tapes and to the T.V., but in all this you should choose useful things for you.
No objection at all to getting some entertainment , amusement, rest or relaxation, for all these things are also useful and no one can continuously concentrate, be serious, or be in tension all the time.
To summarize the whole matter , everything can be useful to me if I do it the right way, in the right place and in the best time.
Is there a problem of getting some rest? ___________________________
What is useful for us? _________________________________________
Is reading useful to everyone? ___________________________________
About:       How can we, easily, learn and be excellent at English
 1) Write a dialogue between you and one or more of your friends (at least 7 lines).         2) Write an essay (at least 10 lines).

Speaking English  : [Meena]    Now , after you have studied this book by heart and have memorized everything in it , can you speak , read and write English good?  /  yes, sure , not only good but very good , now I'm excellent and brilliant at English  /  could you make up your own conversations as you need in your daily life?  /  of course  / will you help others learning English?  /  sure, I will  /  will you do this honestly  /  Yes, I promise to do it honestly , so that God may also help me when I'm in need  / very good , you are a good person , may God be with you / and also with you sir / thank you / thank you sir very much

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